322 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE the language. In the novel this movement finds its voice in ILSE FRAPAN'S (1855-1909) Wir Frauen haben kein Vaterland (1899): a German girl, unable to obtain a scholarship in her native Ham- burg, studies under stress at Zurich. HELENE BOHLAU (1859-1919) had her own fight with German social custom. The daughter of a publisher, she went to Turkey with a married man, and was mar- ried to him by Turkish law; her novel Isebies (1911) is based on this experience. She began with Novellen in which she turned her upbringing to account - her youth was passed in Weimar, and the old folks she knew could tell tales of the spacious days of Goethe and Schiller, the stars of the social circles she describes in her jolly l&itsmadelgesMcbten (1888) and Altweimarische Uebes- mid Ehege- scbichten (1897). Her Rangierbahnhof (1896) is feministic in so far as it is a study of Grillparzer's poignant Sappho theme under modern conditions (the 'shunting station' symbolises the ceaseless din of the modern city in which an artist may have to work) - the right of the woman of genius to wedded happiness. The conclusion is that the activity of a woman's intellect is subject to her physical functions, and that married life makes demands which may prove fatal to an artist.1 The result is not anti-feministic; for what the feminists claim is equal liberty either as artist or in the functions of love. DasRfcbt der Mutter (1896) is the first outspoken defence of the unmarried mother. As a polemic it does, it is true, lose direct- ness of impact by virtue of the Marchen-Vikt atmosphere in which it is bathed: where it is uncompromising is in the comparison of the care lavished on the married mother with the brutal treatment of the girl who has given her body in a moment of natural passion: here the contrast is heightened by the parallel pregnancy of two sisters, one the wife of a smug professor in Jena. (The contrast is not so poignant in Clara Viebig's Das tdglicbe Brof, where the preg- nant mistress of the house draws her skirt around her lest the hem of it should touch her pregnant maid.) Helene Bohlau gives all the social dignity and ultimately real happiness to the girl who whistles the world away and lives for her child. In Halbfier (1899) the interest is mainly physiological: woman and wife exist, in man's estimation, 'to fulfil animal functions* (fsind Nut^ichkeitstierf\ 1 The theme of Rangierbahnhof is, so to speak, in the germ in Adalbert Stifter's DerKondor (1840, his first novel). Rilke's painter friend Paula Becker married the Worpswede painter Otto Modersohn and died in childbirth; Bilke comments on this in his Tagebucb that God had punished her for trying to be woman and artist at the same time.